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Archive for the ‘technical strategies’ Category

Technical Strategies – Interlocking the Custom Wrap Around Jawline Implant

Monday, January 16th, 2017

 

A custom wrap around jawline implant offers an unparalled approach to jawline augmentation. Made from a 3D CT scan it is designed to provide varying amounts of chin and jaw angle dimensional changes that are connected as a single piece implant. Because it is one larger implant it usually has to be placed through a three-incisional technique, one around the chin and the other two intraorally back by the jaw angles.

Because each incision is much smaller than the length of the implant, the sides of the implant must be initially introduced through the chin incision. The sides of the implant are then fed through the side tunnels back into the jaw angle area. The flexibility of the implant permits such a placement technique through the comparatively small incisions.

The ability to thread a custom wrap around jawline implant from front to back depends the size of the jaw angle portions. If the back portion of the implant is fairly big, trying to pass it through a subperiosteal tunnel below the mental nerve risks a stretch or tear injury to it. In these implant sizes it is better to split it in the middle and thread it from back to front. The smaller chin portion is safer to pass under the mental nerves.

Custom Jawline Implant modification Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisReuniting the split custom wrap around jawline implant in the midline once positioned can be done with sutures or screws. Getting two vertically split midline implant sections perfectly together can be challenging. An alternative strategy is to create an interlocking connection down the midline when the implant is sectioned.

Custom Jawline Implant Re-assembly Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisWhen reuniting these interlocking midline segments, like lenticular puzzle pieces, the precision of the implant design is re-established over the chin.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Technical Strategies – Stacked Jaw Angle Implants

Sunday, January 8th, 2017

 

Jaw angles implants are designed to add size and shape to the mandibular ramus area. They are a companion and complement to the more commonly performed and well known chin implant. Together chin and jaw angle implants create a complete jaw augmentation approach.

While selecting the style and size of chin implants is fairly easy, doing so with jaw angle implants is not. Since the chin is a projecting structure on the edge of the jaw, the amount of horizontal projection is frequently the most important dimensional consideration. This is both easy to see, measure as well as perform computer imaging. Jaw angle implants, however, are not an edge enhancement procedure. Rather they provide augmentation to the side of the jaw/face where measurements and even computer imaging is harder to do in a reliable fashion.

Because of the more imprecise nature of jaw angle implant size selection, it is very helpful to be prepared during surgery with multiple implant sizes. Most of the time standard sizes will work (small, medium and large) but this is not always the case. How an implant looks in place can be less than what one would anticipate and there is always the issue of asymmetry which is very common in the jaw angle area.

stacked-jaw-angle-implants-technique-dr-barry-eppley-indianapolisIf necessary it is always possible to stack jaw angle implants together to create the desired augmentation effect. Unlike many other facial implant types, angle implants fit together fairly well… a little bit like nesting dolls. Some trimming does need to be done but the implants can be stacked fairly securely. This will increase the width of the jaw angle augmentation over what any one single implant can do.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Technical Strategies – Hairline Approach to Temporal Implants

Thursday, September 8th, 2016

 

Temporal implants offer the only method of permanent temporal augmentation…that is also easily reversible. Placed in the subfascial plane on top of the anterior temporalis muscle, there is no risk of facial nerve injury nor visible edges of the implant.The skin incision to place them is done back behind the temporal hairline so it is easily hidden in the hair. This also provides an easy point of access to the subfascial plane.

But one can also place temporal implants through a hairline incision as well. I recently had a patient who came in for a variety of facial procedures including temporal implants. She happened to have had a facelift by another surgeon where a hairline incision was carried away from the ear up along the front edge of the temporal hairline. Thus an existing temporal hairline scar was present.

hairline-approach-to-temporal-implants-intraop-1-dr-barry-eppley-indianapolisHer temporal implants were placed through the anterior hairline scar. A 3.5 cm length of the scar was opened and the deep temporalis fascia exposed. The fascia was opened and a subfascial pocket developed to the lateral orbital rim anteriorly, the zygomatic arch inferiorly and just below the anterior temporal line superiorly.

hairline-approach-to-temporal-implants-intraop-2-dr-barry-eppley-indianapolisBecause she wanted a more complete temporal augmentation, a standard temporal implant was turned into a vertical orientation. The implant was slipped into the pocket with the back edge of the implant easily seen given the anterior incisional access used.

hairline-approach-to-temporal-implants-intraop-3-dr-barry-eppley-indianapolisThe fascia, dermis and skin were then closed with dissolveable sutures. This leaves her with the same hairline temporal scar that she already had.

While the hairline or pretrichial approach to temporal implants does place the fine line scar in a more visible location, it does have several advantages. It offers easier access to the subfascial pocket and allows visible assessment of the implant placement. Because there is less tissue disruption than when the incision is placed further back in the temporal hair, the procedure is also less ‘traumatic’.

For the properly selected patient, the hairline approach to temporal implant placement could be a preferred technique.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Technical Strategies – Parietal Eminence Skull Reduction

Thursday, September 8th, 2016

The reduction of skull lumps and bump is a not uncommon request in skull reshaping surgery. Raised areas of the skull can occur for a variety of reasons although the most common is congenital, being just the way that the skull formed.

One unique type of skull lump is not really a lump at all. Known as the parietal eminence it develops from the parietal bone. This skull bone is situated on the sides and roof of the skull, is quadrilateral in shape and has four borders and four angles. Its external shape is convex and near its center is the parietal eminence from which it is formed by ossification. This ossification process begins about the eighth week in utero and gradually extends outward in a radial pattern from the eminence to the margins of the bone.

Because the parietal eminence is the epicenter of the parietal bone it can appear as a prominent bump. Roughly the size of a quarter it can discerned in oblique profile views and, even with hair, can be easily palpated.

parietal-eminence-reduction-by-burring-dr-barry-eppley-indianapolisParietal eminence skull reduction is a form of ‘spot’ cranioplasty. Using a handpiece and drill the prominent high spot of the bone can be satisfactorily reduced. In doing so there are two key components of the procedure. The first important technique is how the bone is reduced. A small skull problem deserves a small incision. Using a high speed handpiece and burr around hair through a small incision runs the real risk of getting hair entangled and pulled out  by the rotation of the burr. Guarding the full length of the burr with a rubber guard allows a smooth reduction to be safely done without risk of hair injury.

parietal-eminence-reduction-incision-dr-barry-eppley-indianapolisWhen making an incision for parietal eminence skull reduction, the incision need to be vertical in orientation and only about 4.5 cms long. But rather than just a straight line, it is aesthetically better to create an irregular zigzag line with a few sharp angles placed between the visible hair shafts. This allows the incision to heal amongst the hair in the most inconspicuous manner.

Parietal eminence skull reduction is a very effective procedure that can be done with limited scalp and hair trauma that leaves an inconspicuous scar.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Technical Strategies – The Versatile Temporal Implant

Sunday, May 8th, 2016

 

Augmentation of temporal hollowing has become a popular aesthetic procedure. While synthetic fillers and fat offer simplicity, they do not create a permanent treatment solution. Temporal implants fill that need and can be placed through a relatively minor surgical procedure.

Temporal Implant Design Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisThe first generation standard temporal implants are of a soft flexible silicone material that is designed to simulate muscle tissue. It has a shape that simulates the lateral orbital rim anteriorly, the zygomatic arch inferiorly and then tapes superiorly and laterally into a tapered edge. It is longer horizontally than vertically and is designed to treat the deepest part of temporal hollowing which is at the lower half of the anterior temporal region between the eye and the temporal hairline.

Temporal Implants modifed use Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisBut some patients have temporal hollowing that extends up higher and desire a temporal augmentation effect that is vertically longer. In these cases the standard temporal implant can be rotated 90 degrees so that it is placed with the longer horizontal part vertically and the vertical part horizontal. It is also important that the right and left temporal implants be switched when making this implant re-orientation. In other words, a right temporal implant is used on the patient’s left side that is rotated 90 degrees in orientation n the left temporal hollow.

The standard temporal implant offers some versatility in how it can be used to create its temporal augmentation effect. In the subfascial location, it offers two options for the extent of its effect based on how the implant is oriented.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Technical Strategies – Diced Rib Graft Injection in Rhinoplasty

Tuesday, April 12th, 2016

 

Primary or secondary correction of nasal bridge deformities is now well known to be corrected by injectable fillers. The use of hyaluronic acid-based (HA) injectable fillers provides a quick and very directed approach to a wide variety of nasal contour deformities. While effective, no HA filler to the nose provides a permanent contour correction in the vast majority of patients.

I have run across a handful of patients that stated they had gotten one HA injection to the nose years ago and the result was sustained. But it is hard to know whether this is merely cosmetic accommodation or was indeed a ‘permanent’ result. I suspect that of the nasal contour issue was significant, such a permanent result would not have been seen. I know from injecting a lot of dorsal hump patients with HA fillers to camouflage it (placing filler above the hump to create a straight dorsal line) that such filler volumes are not sustained in the nose.

Diced Rib Graft Injection Preparation Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisAn alternative and permanent options for larger primary or secondary dorsal line defects is that of a diced cartilage graft injection. This is a concept that, while injected, must be differentiated from that of HA filler injections. This is where cartilage grafts from either the septum, ear or rib are processed to make them injectable. This is done by cutting (dicing) them into small 1 x 1mm cubes (or smaller) and placing them into an open barrel 1ml syringe.

Diced Rib Graft Injection Preparation 2 Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisThrough an intranasal (intercartilaginous) incision, a tunnel is made on the dorsum up onto the upper dorsal defect area. (frontonasal junction, radix, nasal sidewall) The syringe is introduced and the compressed cartilage grafts are injected in the desired amount and shaped externally. The grafted area is taped to hold the desired shape for 7 to 10 days.

While many diced cartilage are traditionally wrapped in surgical or fascia, there is a role in smaller nasal dorsal defects for direct injection of the cartilage. The small nasal tunnel and confinement of the syringe allow the cartilage particles to be precisely delivered.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Technical Strategies – Large Skull Reduction

Saturday, April 2nd, 2016

 

skull layersWhile there are many different types of skull reshaping surgeries, the most limiting is the desire to have an overall smaller head. Because of the skull’s thickness, there are limits as to how much of the skull thickness that can be reduced. While there are great variabilities in the thickness of the human skull, safe reduction is limited to removal of the outer cortical layer. The skull is exactly like an Oreo cookie with three layers, two outer hard layers (cortex) and an inner softer marrow layer. (diploic space) For reasons of brain protection and bleeding, aesthetic reduction should go no further than the outer layer of the ‘cookie’.

The typical outer coretx of the skull is anywhere, on average, from 4 to 7mms thick in humans. This thickness is affected by gender, age and ethnicity. While reduction of such a  ‘limited’ amount of skull thickness may not seem like much, it can appear much bigger than one would think when a broad surface area of it is removed. This is particularly true across the top of the skull between the temporal lines and in the forehead and back of the skull. Reduction along the sides of the skull is more greatly impacted by muscle reduction than it is by bone removal.

When doing large skull reduction areas, a burring technique is used as the most efficient and safest bone removal method. Burring allows for a controlled bone removal method so one can judge how when one is getting close to the diploic space of the skull. But when burring large skull areas it can be difficult to get it perfectly smooth and even across its convex surface. The procedure is also tedious and time consuming.

Skull Reduction technique 1 Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisSkull Reduction surgical technique 2 Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisThe technique that I have developed for large skull reductions is a ‘checkerboard’ method. A horizontal cut with a burr is first made to establish the depth of the reduction from one temporal line to another. Then additional horizontal lines are made over the desired skull reduction area. Then vertical burr cuts are also made to create a grid or checkerboard appearance.

Skull Reduction surgical technique Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisSkull Reduction surgical technique 4 Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisThis checkerboard skull pattern then allows one to reduce each individual square sequentially. This helps ensure that the overall bone reduction is done as even as possible and allows one to do it faster and very safely. Always knowing where the diploic space is located gives the surgeon better control of the bone being removed.

Any large skull reduction done for aesthetic purposes is accomplished by removing the outer cortex through bone burring. This checkerboard technique allows for both precision and safety.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Technical Strategies – Screw Fixation of the Premaxillary-Paranasal Implant

Monday, March 28th, 2016

 

paranasal implant anatomy pyriform aperture dr barry eppley indianapolisAugmentation of the central midface can be done by placing an implant along the base and sides of the nose. Known as the pyriform aperture, it is the bony outline of the nasal cavity which makes a hole in the facial skeleton to the back of the throat. The soft tissue and cartilage structure of the nose sits on top or in front of it.

Peri-Pyriform Implant Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolsParanasal Implant placement Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisThe pyriform aperture area can be augmented by a standard preformed implant known as the peri-pyriform implant. It has bilateral wings that augment the paranasal or sides of the pyriform aperture and a connecting center piece which crosses the premaxillary region along the bottom of the nose. Technically this implant should be called a premaxillary-paranasal implant. It is a versatile implant since it can be sectioned to just do paranasal augmentation or its wings can be removed to create just a premaxillary implant.

Paranasal Implant Placement Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisThe premaxllary-paranasal implant is placed through a low anterior vestibular incision up under the upper lip. It is important to place the incision above the fixed mucoperiosteal to leave a cuff of tissue to create a good closure. Sunperiosteal dissection is done up to the anterior nasal spine and around the sides of the pyriform aperture. It is important to stay close to the edge of the bone but to not violate the nasal mucosal lining. The implant is placed snug up against the anterior nasal spine and along the sides of the pyriform aperture. Two 1.5mm screws are placed through the wings of the implant to secure it to the bone.

The premaxillary-paranasal implant is the only implant that can provide central face augmentation. It has a LeFort 1-like effect on the base and sides of the nose. Firm fixation to the bone by microcrews is a simple and effective method to ensure its postoperative placement and long-term stability

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Technical Strategies – Head Widening Implants

Monday, February 15th, 2016

 

The width of the side of the head  is controlled by the shape of the temporal bone and the thickness of the temporalis muscle, all located above the ear. While many think the bone is the main contributing factor, the thickness of the temporalis muscle should not be underestimated. By CT scan measurements it can be seen that the temporalis muscle usually makes a bigger contribution than that of the bone to the width of the side of the heasd.

Regardless of the anatomic makeup of the width of the head, widening the narrow head must be done by either onlay augmentation of the bone (submuscular) or onlay augmentation of the muscle. (subfascial) Which implant location is best depends on whether the augmentation involve just the posterior temporal region (above the ears) or also the anterior temporal region as well. (by the side of the eye)

Head Widening Implants (anterior and posterior temporal implants Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisHead Widening Implants (incision and subfascial dissection) Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisMost head widening implants augmentation include both the anterior and posterior temporal regions. This can be accessed through a single 4cm incision placed in an intermediate location in the temporal hairline. Using a subfascial incision and pocket dissection, extended anterior and larger posterior temporal implants can be placed through the same point of temporal incisional access.

Head Widening Implants (implant placement and subafscial closure) Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisHead Widening Implants (incision closure) Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisAfter the placement of both anterior and posterior temporal implants in the subfascial pockets, the fascia os closed over the them. The skin closure is done in a two layer fashion with resorbable sutures.

Head widening or complete temporal augmentation can be done through a single small temporal incision. Two implants are needed to increase the volume of both the anterior and posterior temporal regions.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Technical Strategies – Extended Temporal Implants

Sunday, February 14th, 2016

 

Temporal implants have become the surgical approach to the treatment of temporal hollowing.  They offer a rapidly performed permanent solution that eclipses the temporary and inconsistent effects of synthetic fillers and fat injections. These implants are placed in the subfascial location on top of the temporalis muscle through a small vertical or obliquely oriented incision back in the temporal hairline.

As the use of temporal implants has increased, new styles have emerged. The initial temporal implant design was designed to treat the deepest part of the temporal hollows by the side of the eye. These implants only went up about as high as the lateral brow bone.

Extended Anterior Temporal Implant Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisBut as more experience with temporal implants has evolved, it become clear that the extent of bothersome temporal hollowing can extend all the way up to the side of the forehead. (anterior temporal line) This has led to an extended style of temporal implants that provides some augmentation much higher than the standard style. (up to 6.5 cm vertical height from the zygomatic arch)

Temporal Implants Incision and Insertion Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisWith such a larger temporal implant, the concern would be that a much larger incision would be needed for its placement. To avoid more than a 3 cm to 3.5 cm incision, the key is to make the subfascial pocket through a small incision. This is easy to do with instruments in a blind fashion. Then the implant can be inserted lengthwise in a rolled fashion. Once making its way through the small incision, the implant is unfurled and rotated into the proper position.

Larger styles of temporal implants can still be inserted through relatively small temporal hairline incisions. This makes the appeal of temporal implants for larger areas of temporal hollowing equally appealing as smaller amounts of temporal hollowing.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana


Dr. Barry EppleyDr. Barry Eppley

Dr. Barry Eppley is an extensively trained plastic and cosmetic surgeon with more than 20 years of surgical experience. He is both a licensed physician and dentist as well as double board-certified in both Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. This training allows him to perform the most complex surgical procedures from cosmetic changes to the face and body to craniofacial surgery. Dr. Eppley has made extensive contributions to plastic surgery starting with the development of several advanced surgical techniques. He is a revered author, lecturer and educator in the field of plastic and cosmetic surgery.

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